The current global environmental concern which revolves on the dependency of fossil fuels has caused a mayor impulse in alternative energies such as solar, wind, geothermal and biogas. Sludge is the most abundant residue that remains from wastewater treatment plants. Sludge can be anaerobically digested and produces biogas, composed mainly of methane and carbon dioxide. This method reduces the volume of sludge for disposal and presents a positive energetic balance, recovering energy as electricity. This book details the research conducted with the specific aim to perform biochemical methane potential (BMP) test in sewage sludge in order to quantify the maximum methane producing capacity and measure the anaerobic biodegradability of a given substrate. This study describes a new BMP test procedure where batch digestion tests were performed and provided clear, continuous and precise results. These experiments and analysis will be able to develop more efficient anaerobic systems with better biogas production and higher methane yield, and should be particularly useful for professionals involved in Microbiology, Wastewater Technologies and Renewable Energy.