The Indian Lilac (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) or Neem is a versatile plant belongs to the Meliaceae family known traditionally for its phenomenal potentials as herbal remedies for village pharmacy in rural and sub-urban India. It has been exploited extensively in many herbal formulations in Indian system of therapy called ‘Ayurveda’ for generations in rural India. The neem tree is the richest source of naturally occurring secondary metabolites within a single plant. More than 300 natural bioactive compounds have been isolated and characterized from different part of the Neem tree and new compounds are still adding into the list every year. However, there are relatively few literature available about endophytic microbial associations with this plant. Significant developments in endophytic research has been observed from this plant in the recent years. Several new concepts and ideas including host mimetic compounds from associated endophytes has been reported. The present book thus presented the latest achievements in endophytic research on Neem,that provides platform for further scientific mining of its endophytic wealth for biotechnological applications.