For sustainable agriculture, conventional practices which involve heavy fertilizer input are undesirable owing to their long lasting impact on the soil quality. Alternatively to ensure increased productivity is, input of vermicompost along with bioinoculants as biofertilisers. In this endeavour, arbuscular mycorrhiza is well established as potential stimulator of plant secondary metabolism attracts considerable attentions and research efforts. Andrographis paniculata is an annual herb belonging to the family Acanthaceae that produces commercial metabolite andrographolide used in cancer therapy. In medicinal crops, the metabolite content is more important as it determines the cost of its extraction. The genetic variability evaluation among plant population better identifies and ascertains the cultivar establishment for propagation at commercial level. In view of the above, this book addresses the research on effect of integrated application of microbial inoculants to genetically variable cultivars for producing high productivity in terms of biomass and bioactive principles.