The diarrheal diseases were reported to be the second most common cause of death among children less than 5 years of age. Cholera is a most dreadful among all diarrheal diseases and is caused by the ingestion of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae. Humans are the only known natural host for V. cholerae, and the disease is mainly transmitted through the ingestion of contaminated water. Throughout history, devastating outbreaks of cholera have resulted in millions of cases and hundreds of thousands of deaths. This book presents a diarrhoeal outbreak documented in the summer season of 2010 in a remote district of South India. The causative agent of the outbreak was identified as Vibrio cholerae. The origin, source of infection and mode of transmission of V. cholerae was identified. Demographic details of the affected persons were tabulated, analyzed and presented. This book would be useful to the researchers working with microbiological and/or epidemiological aspects of Vibrio cholerae/Cholera.