In this study, the microbiological and chemical qualities of drinking water as well as their health implication was investigated. Conductivity and pH values were also determined while elemental composition was analyzed using X-ray Fluorescence apparatus. There were a number of new findings made which were discussed hand in hand with recent professional journals on the topic. General overview of issues related to drinking water such as historical perspective, sources of drinking water, water supply system, microbial and chemical qualities of drinking water, health implications of contaminated water, assessment of water quality and microbiological and chemical constituent tests of drinking water and their procedures was also made. This book is written especially for students of Microbiology, Food Science and other related subjects. It can also serve as reference and guide book for those carrying out researches on similar topics.