Lactobacillus plantarum is a probiotic bacteria with many health effects in human and animals. In order to achieve beneficial health effects the probiotic bacteria must be survive in gastrointestinal adverse conditions and could reach to the colon in adequate number. Microencapsulation of probiotic bacteria is one of the methods of improving their viability in foods and protection of them against gastrointestinal adverse condition. Present book is part of a dissertation and provide useful information about the microencapsulation of probiotic bacteria to dear food microbiologists, food chemists and pharmacologists. It has been prepared in 6 sections: 1) Introduction to probiotics, the human gastrointestinal tract and microencapsulation techniques. 2) Methods, materials and equipment required for microencapsulation of L. plantarum PTCC 1058 by emulsification technique by the use of sodium alginate and resistant starch and its examination in simulated gastrointestinal conditions, assessment of the viability of entrapped bacteria and properties of capsules, etc. Subsequent sections (3-6) are devoted respectively to Results, Discussion, Conclusion and References.