Restorative dentistry has experienced a shift from the mainly reparative dentistry of the 20th century towards a minimal intervention approach encompassing up to date caries diagnosis and risk assessment before arriving at treatment decision. A shift in philosophy from the traditional surgical model of excision to a more modern medical model of treating caries is occurring so, when operative care is indicated, it should be aimed at “prevention of extension” rather than “extension for prevention”. This book emphasis on the minimal invasive concepts consisting of individual caries risk assessment, reduction of cariogenic bacteria, early caries diagnosis, remineralization of non-cavitated arrested lesions, minimal tooth preparation with modified cavity designs and repair rather than replacement of the restoration. Also minimal invasive techniques including air abrasion, atraumatic restorative technique, chemomechanical methods, tunnel restorations and lasers for treatment of dental caries have been discussed. We believe that this book will provide valuable knowledge to students and practitioners in applying minimal intervention concepts, thus preserving the natural tooth structure.