Transcrestal elevation of the maxillary sinus membrane provides a minimally invasive treatment option to augment bone volume for dental implant placement in the edentulous posterior maxilla. The present thesis details on surgical as well as preoperative planning procedures of an innovative technique to elevate the sinus membrane using gel pressure. The influence of internal sinus anatomy and biomechanical properties of the maxillary sinus membrane on maximum membrane elevation height is studied in human cadaver experiments and computed tomography-based analyses. Maxillary sinus septa and primary stability of simultaneously placed implants are investigated. Clinical study results on methods of transcrestal osteotomy and bone regeneration following maxillary sinus floor augmentation are presented.