These days, it is unusual for academic analysts to recommend investment in mining as a desirable means for economic development. Critics of mining point to its possible negative social, economic and environmental impacts in developing countries. It is possible for negative impacts to occur but its environmental costs are often outweighed by economic gains. These issues are discussed in this book by focusing on the proposed development of the Namosi mine in Fiji. The development of the Namosi mine could make a significant contribution to Fiji''s economic growth. The extent and nature of the contribution is assessed. The environmental costs of the project are estimated and compared with the economic gains. It is argued that the economic gain is likely to outweigh the environmental cost associated with the mining project. A variety of techniques are used to conduct the assessment. These include CB analysis, I-O analysis and CGE modeling. This in-depth contribution will be valuable reading for development economists, resource and environmental economist, government policy-makers as well as those interested in mining development generally.