How can it be that in spite of fine goals, numerous attempts, and tremendous resources, we have not been able to create a world with a decent living for everyone? This book searches for answers by analysing the impacts of current human activities through several developed frameworks. The applied method is original by indicating how companies, governments, and other organisations are influenced by basic human traits. The book contributes to the scientific debate through many compelling and provocative results, like exposing the basic features of the demand for economic growth, fixing turning points for the gains obtained by economic growth, revealing worldwide patterns in income distribution, illuminating the basic features and impacts of corruption, and identifying regional differences in many economic and social domains. In addition, the book defines the legacy of Communism and evaluates the success and failure of 143 countries in serving their citizens. The creative insights open new perspectives that are useful for all social scientists and economists and for anyone who is interested in better understanding our contemporary world.