Water and vegetation are vital for sustaining life. However, they are becoming more stressed following population growth and associated water demands. As a result, most continent discharges are classified as “moderate” to “highly threatened” by human activities, partly through water abstraction. Bwathonaro river in Meru, Imenti North District of Eastern Kenya is not exception. The river is experiencing over abstraction driven by a number of forces, including increased irrigation farming. Consequently, downstream flows have now reduced to zero during dry season, thus causing great effects to the riparian vegetation. The severity of the effects has necessitated the adoption of mitigation measures. This book describes measures taken to mitigate the effects of water abstraction on riparian vegetation of Bwathonaro river. With increase in management efforts, the results showed progressive amplification on timing and duration of river flow peaking and retrogressive behavior of riparian vegetation. The results are useful for planning and decision making on viable measures which can reduce the effects of water abstraction on the riparian vegetation of rivers with similar characteristics.