Environmental contamination by radionuclide is a major concern at energy facilities. Actinoids along with lanthanoids are major contributors to the long-term radioactivity of nuclear waste currently targeted. More fundamental understanding of radionuclide is needed to better assess the nuclear stockpiles globally, which will help stem the clandestine proliferation of nuclear weapons, and better understand the implications of nuclear fuels' use and storage. Radionuclides migrate from the waste matrix and co-precipitate with other secondary minerals to form thermodynamically stable solid solutions. Co-precipitation onto the surface of solids is a potential way of separating, removing and utilizing nuclear materials from the waste stockpiles at energy facilities.