Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease which starts when low density lipoproteins (LDL) enter the intima of blood vessel where they are oxidized (ox-LDL). The ox-LDL is considered as a dangerous agent by the immune system provoking an anti-inflammatory response. This immune response triggers the recruitment of monocytes into the intima where they differentiate into macrophages and foam cells. The latter amplifies the production of inflammatory cytokines and further recruitment of monocytes. This auto-amplified process is compensated by the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines biochemical anti-inflammation) and triggers the migration of smooth muscle cells to form a fibrous cap that covers the lipid core. These fibrous caps with the lipid core are called atherosclerosis plaque. It changes the geometry of the blood vessel by narrowing it and interacts with the blood flow. This interaction may have dangerous consequences related to the plaque rupture or to the formation of blood clot. This book is devoted to mathematical modelling ofthese phenomena.