The work is a political biography of Amir Amanullah Khan, the Amir of Afghanistan who carries the sobriquet of “the ill-fated champion of modernization in Afghanistan” during the 1920’s. This work deals with the life and career of Amir Amanullah, one of the most extraordinary personalities of Afghan history. He is remembered for his endeavors to reform Afghanistan and change it from “medieval oriented and predominantly tribal country” into a modern industrialized state. There is relatively very few works on this great Afghan statesman. This work may in the long run fill up certain wide gaps and missing links of his personality. He tried to take up the almost difficult task of reform and modernization to the hither to conservative and poor Afghan society during the first quarter of the 20th century. He had planned to bring Afghan state on the pattern of emerging 20th century modern European states. In his efforts of modernization he came into clashes with the regressive and backward looking traditionalist forces of the Afghan society. The Afghan society at that time as ever, was basically comprised of the rigid elements from the Afghan feudal and tribal segments.