Revision with unchanged content. Challenges related to energy consumption, moisture, and mold control in buildings have reached a crises level. This book introduces a mathematical model for understanding traditional architecture and finding solutions for our current energy efficiency, moisture, and mold related problems. Based on lessons from the past, this book introduces a new understanding of thermal mass in buildings that include utilizing latent thermal mass to control moisture and reduce energy consumption in buildings. Here in this book, you will find a holistic evaluation model that assists architects and designers in producing healthy buildings with low energy consumption. This book discusses the use of field monitoring and computer simulation for both heat and moisture transfer to test and analyze suggested design and control strategies to reduce energy consumption in buildings as well as to improve air quality and depress mold growth. This book also sug?gests general design guidelines to improve energy performance of buildings and to enhance thermal comfort. This book is very valuable for Researchers, Architects, Engineers, Builders, and Policy makers who are involved in the design and construction of buildings.