Anthocyans have wide food source, occurring ubiquitously in many edible plants and confer bright red or blue coloration. Investigations from epidemiological and animal model indicate that consumption of anthyocyans-rich foods is benefit to cancer chemoprevention, suggesting that anthocyans might be potential cancer chemopreventive agents, and the underlying molecular evidence is urgent and crucial concern. The preset study characterized the chemopreventive effects of anthocyans by targeting well-accepted cellular/molecular mechanisms that can at least partially explain the effectiveness of anthocyans as chemopreventive agents. The contents include that (1) anthocyans inhibit neoplastic transformation through the inhibition of AP-1 activation; (2) anthocyans suppress inflammation by blocking COX-2 overexpression; and (3) anthocyans inhibit proliferation/or growth of tumor cells through the induction of apoptosis. These data provided the first molecular basis on cancer chemopreventive effects of anthocyans.