The book comprises information on important viruses infecting sugarcane in India, their characterization and diagnosis. Detailed information is provided on viruses causing mosaic, yellow leaf and leaf freckle in sugarcane and these viruses were characterized based on genomic information for the first time from India. It is proved that sugarcane mosaic is caused by Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and Sugarcane streak mosaic virus (SCSMV)either alone or separately for the first time. Similarly information on prevalence of four genotypes of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) was established in India. Complete genomes of five Sugarcane bacilliform virus (SCBV)isolates were sequenced, characterized and established three new species of the virus. Based on detailed characterization, the unclassified member in Potiviridae, SCSMV was designated to a new genus as Susmovirus. Recently it was renamed as 'Poacevirus'. Molecular diagnostics were developed for four sugarcane viruses and validated. Antiserum produced against recombinant SCSMV coat protein and diagnosis based ELISA was developed.