This thesis deals with the metastable decay and the surface scattering in the hyperthermal energy range of relatively weakly bound molecular cluster cations. Surface impact experiments were carried out with stainless steel and silicon surfaces. Results were obtained by a new, reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (Re-TOFMS). Additional to the experimental data a detailed description of the instrumental design considerations, numerical optimization, ion optical simulations are presented in this work. Hence each ion optical component like electron guns, accelerator, deflector, mass gate and reflectron are described. Despite the compact dimensions with a total flight length of ~1.5m the developed instrument possesses a high mass resolution above m/Delta m = 3000. Additionally it offers the possibility to perform mass separation of big cluster ions with sizes n >= 190. As a result mass-selected cluster ions of carbon monoxide and dioxide were studied for metastable decay channels and for interactions with surfaces.