Genetic diversity is a key factor in species survival, evolution, and adaptation. It also reveals species genetic structure and provides insights into how different demographic forces shape species genetic variability. Although, black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray) is the first tree to have its genome completely sequenced; however, information regarding its natural genetic diversity and population structure is lacking. This work investigates Black Cottonwood diversity and evolutionarily forces which affect its genetic diversity as compared to European Aspen.