Common carp (Cyprinus carpio. L) is the world’s oldest domesticated and arguably most important aquaculture species. The overall objective of this thesis is to advance the understanding of the genetics of common carp and with a special focus on little studied Vietnamese domesticated and wild populations. The first part of the study demonstrated that direct sequencing of variable mtDNA gene fragments has the potential to provide useful insights into the genetic diversity, origin, divergence and genealogy of carp populations. The second part using mtDNA sequences, examines taxonomic questions and evolutionary hypotheses focussing on samples originating from wild population from across Eurasia. The third and fourth parts of the thesis present an examination of genetic diversity in introduced and indigenous domesticated stocks and wild populations of common carp from throughout Vietnam using DNA direct sequencing, SSCP analysis of the mt DNA control region and microsatellite markers. The last part of the thesis presents a phylogenetic study of the taxonomic classification and relationship within subfamilies of the family Cyprinidae.