Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is used in the world more than any other natural fiber. Ligon lintless (Li-1), a simply inherited, monogenic dominant cotton mutant is characterized by short lint fiber. This mutation affects not only the growth and development of the cotton fibers, but also the mutation changes the formation of both the primary and secondary cell wall. Li-1 is a near isoline of TM-1, but the phenotypic traits of Li-1 are dramatically different from its parent. This book introduces the Li-1 mutant, and provides insight into potential candidate genes that may control fiber growth and development.