Genetic and phylogenetic relationships of some egyptian Hordeum species were studied based on morphology, cytology, and molecular evidences. The Molecular evidences were AFLP and ITS sequence. Several AFLP bands from different species were sequenced in order to compare the sequence of the same band present in different species. Phylogeny trees were reconstructed for the studied species based on the studied data. All resulted trees were consisted with each other and emphasized the four genome theory of the genus Hordeum.