In the past 20 years, animal husbandry in Inner Mongolia area of China is transformed from free herding on open pasture to restricted herding plus domestic fodder-feeding. This new implementation, which is now broadly applied in Inner Mongolia, is aiming at protecting and preserving the deteriorated grassland. The authors were doing 6 months' fieldwork in Xilingol League, Inner Mongolia, living with the herders, collecting raw materials, and doing interviews with local households. The book takes Oden Ula Gachaa in Xilingol League as a case study. The aim of the book is to present the current conditions of the rural pastureland in Inner Mongolia from both social and economic aspects, to help readers have a better understanding of the local reality, and to expect a feasible solution for the welfare of the local people.