The rural area is the home to 70% of population in Southern Africa. Agriculture is the main rural economic activity and the backbone of the economy. Neglecting or paying less attention to agricultural and food policy will prevent the region from achieving the first Development Millennium Goal (Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger). The region development will not occur unless the agricultural development takes off. This monograph is intended for undergraduate and master students in agricultural economics programs. It is also designed to help policy-makers in the region understand the rationale and processes associated with designing and implementing agricultural and food policy. Times change and policies should change with them.