Tehran’s situation room draws fundamental concerns when juxtaposed with the Iranian nuclear programme. Embroiled in such topical problem-solving, some Middle-Eastern countries may well tend to fix the equation by launching a new and regional nuclear-weapons race. Avoiding such a baleful scenario is a top priority of Barack Obama’s foreign policy agenda. Concomitantly, what are the rationales behind Russian positions on Iran does often remain an open question in the White House. Therefore, this book explores the dynamics of Moscow’s policy to the Persian state vis-à-vis the nuclear programme, as well as Iranian politics on this issue. Kremlin’s positions are chiefly explained in terms of the overlapping agendas of various domestic actors, and in terms of their meaning in the broader context of Russian - U.S. relations. The analysis should be especially useful to those interested in the study of contemporary Russian “identity” and foreign policy decision-making, as well as to those who wish to deepen their understanding of Iranian power elites and President Obama’s policy-thinking.