The idea to write this book was born during our visit to a mushroom farm house at Bunda College of Agriculture, University of Malawi, Lilongwe, Malawi, and also during our discussions with several beginners of mushroom farming activities in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and other countries in Africa. The visits were a part of a fact finding mission for a UNDP/UNOPS-funded Regional Project for Africa on Promoting Sustainable Development in Africa from Africa's biodiversity, which was based at the University of Namibia, and whose Founding Director was the second author of the book, who was then also a Founding UNESCO/UNU Chair for Africa, based in Namibia. The First Edition of the book was a product of a document compiled by Prof. S. T. Chang and Prof. K. E. Mshigeni in October 2000, within the broad umbrella of the UNDP/UNOPS Project referred to above. The objective of the First Edition of the book was to enable beginners of mushroom farming activities in Africa to have some basic understanding of mushroom biology and mushroom farming technologies. The current book updates the technologies involved, showthe great advances recently made in mushrooms and human health.