Creative and critical thinking has always been the driving force of compositional activity. Combined with advanced signal processing, an integrative and creative framework can be flourished, leading to the origination, conception and discovery of musical ideas. In this book, the way mathematical-based approaches, such as non-linear dynamics, stochastic analysis, game theory and neural networks, could be used as organisational basis of the sound characteristics is explored, creating abstractions (both in macro- and micro-structural level) from which potential structural relationships are made. To this end, sophisticated control of effective pre-compositional planning, by employing computer-based programming, is presented, in an attempt to develop models and strategies with a high degree of generalisation, directly transferable into a music-generating outcome. The realisation procedure of these models and strategies into actual musical works unveils hidden procedural relations and behaviours and controls effectively the statistical characteristics of the compositional building units, such as their distribution in time, frequency and space domains.