The stories we tell about ourselves are essential to make meaning of our lives. These stories also influence the future course of our lives. Narrative therapy has been used to treat many existential problems including those experienced by persons with major mental illness. Clinical music improvisation evokes deep emotions and memories, providing a rich reflective surface from which to narrate one’s life story. In this study, the author examines therapeutic narratives of persons with schizophrenia with and without music improvisation, drawing pertinent conclusions about specific ways that music contributes to life narratives. The literature review explores relationships between music, schizophrenia and narrative therapy, and presents current research on problems of narratives of persons with schizophrenia, narrative assessment, and treatment. Detailed results of the study present the participants’ narratives in their own words analyzed in terms of strengths and weaknesses. This book will be of interest to music therapists, narrative therapists and researchers, and anyone who works with persons with major mental illnesses.