This book examines the changes in the traditional music of Crete that have transpired in the twentieth century, particularly since the 1950’s.Chapter One reviews the ethnomusicological, and to a lesser extent the anthropological, literature on the music of the island; it also presents a history of Cretan music over the centuries, with special reference to the impact of the long Turkish occupation. Chapter Two discusses the particular difficulties encountered by the researcher in conducting fieldwork in Crete. It highlights issues such as ethnomusicology “at home”, pre-fieldwork and fieldwork period. Chapter Three deals with the nature and structure of musical glendia events which are of central importance in the musical life of the island. Chapter Four surveys the music profession in Crete, and the networks of Cretan musicians. Chapter Five examines the complexities of how Cretans understand the concept of “tradition” with respect to current music performance in Crete and the new genres that have emerged. Chapter Six provides the conclusions to the research.