This book attempts to understand the Muslim and non-Muslim differentials. Particular emphasis has been placed on areas such as status of living conditions, households, education, employment and fertility, and the influence of religion on them. Actually this book examines the status of two different cultural groups in their socio-cultural context to understand the true dynamics of the behaviour from the point of view of religious differentials. The significance of the study lies in the fact that it enables us to understand the local needs and demands. District and block is the most suitable unit of the study for planning purpose as the availability of data and most of the assessments and implementative decisions which are to be taken by administrative authorities. It is evident from the review of literature that there is a dearth of research oriented literature on Muslim’s marginalization. Hence, in such a situation, need of the hour is to plan and do some systematic and comprehensive study. This will help to generate empirical data related to the socio-economic problems of Muslims of the state and country in general and in the district of Malda in particular.