The work described herein addresses the following three themes in nanoscale research with emphasis on quantum confinement of atom in II ? VI semiconductor nanoscale materials and: 1. Comparative analysis of characterization tools viz. XRD, SAXS and SANS in analyzing particle sizes; 2. Controlled syntheses of II ? VI semiconductor nanoscale materials using various organic and biological molecules; and 3. Investigations on the fundamental physical properties of nanoparticles, such as the effect of surface modifications by organic/biomolecules on size, luminescence and band gap and their stability.