The HIV epidemic contributed to increase of tuberculosis (TB) in Tanzania. There is little information on the disease caused by M. bovis and nontuberculosis mycobacteria (NTMs) in Tanzania. This study aimed at generating epidemiological information on M. bovis and NTMs disease, to provide information for disease control tool. The study involves subjects from hospital and community settings in rural and semi-rural districts. We enrolled 468 adenitis patients and 426 randomly selected subjects for the community study. The laboratory tests included: culture on 468 biopsy specimens and biochemical identification, histology on 213 specimens, and HIV test on 154 sera. M. bovis caused one out of ten cases of culture positive TB adenitis. NTMs were more common than M. TB (50% and 40% of the cases, respectively). Details for risk factors histology and challenges for diagnosis of TB in the livestock-keeping communities are described. One health initiatives are highly recommended for research and control of this disease. More information on pulmonary disease caused by M. bovis and NTMs, and resistance pattern to anti-TB drugs is required.