Freshwater Myristica swamps are one of the unique ecosystems of the Western Ghats, India. They are integral part of wetland ecosystems. Swamps have high watershed value and occur at lower altitude in wet evergreen forests. The area of swamps ranges from a few square meters to a few hectares. Myristica swamps are dominated by members of family Myristicaceae. Besides, they also harbour several rare-relic floristic compositions, comprising a large number of threatened plant species. A number of species associated with swamps show limited distribution and possess several physiological and structural modifications to survive under waterlogged conditions. In the past few decades due to extensive anthropogenic activities such as diversion of water, illegal felling, encroachment, etc. the swamps have been highly fragmented and threatened. Myristica swamps an unique feature of Western Ghats once had an extensive network now, appear as patches. Further, swamps are considered as India’s most threatened ecosystems. In this book, we through light upon the distribution, ecology, phylogeny, population genetics and fitness of swamps and its associated species and their conservation.