There has long been a connection made between music and visual art movements of around the turn of the twentieth century. Naïve art, as exemplified by Henri Rousseau, has been virtually lost in such artistic comparisons. Similarly lost in canonic explorations of art in conjunction with music is the work of twentieth century Swedish composers. The simplicity and childish depictions of the world found in the work of Naïve visual artists in both France and Sweden can be seen in musical form in compositions by Swedish composers such as Hugo Alfvén and Wilhelm Stenhammar. This paper examines in detail the way music by Swedish composers working at the beginning of the twentieth century reflects the concepts of Naïve art.