Nanomaterials have wide range of applications such as catalysis,medicine, electronics, lubricants, medical implants, water purification, fuel additives, energy production etc. Studies on nanomaterials, such as transition metal oxides, cobaltite, ferrites, metals and their alloys have been undertaken. Chapter 1 includes general information about nanomaterials, their properties, classification (1D, 2D and 3D) on the basis of dimensions, significance of materials on nano scale and their applications. Several methods of synthesis of nanomaterials such sol-gel, co-percipitation, template synthesis etc. along with detail of various techniques used for their characterization such as TEM, SEM, HRTEM, XRD etc. Studies embodied in Chapter 2 isabout ammonium perchlorate, their Properties, and Mechanism of thermal decomposition and effect of metal and alloys on their thermal decomposition of AP are also discussed. Details about AP based propellants are included. Components like oxidizer, meral fuel, binder, plasticizer modifier, curing agent and properties of propellants are mentioned.