Over the last two decades, the use of cellulosic fibers as reinforcing elements in polymeric matrix has been the subject of a good deal of work. Essential reasons for this is the possibility of replacing conventional fibers such as glass by natural cellulosic fibers in reinforced composites due to the abundance, renewable, low cost and eco-friendly nature of cellulose. The original work of the candidate presented in book is undertaken with a view to accomplish technological through harnessing nanotechnology in development of novel precursors for use in different applications especially in green synthesis of nanostructural materials. The as prepared cellulose nanowhiskers (CNW) are chemically modified through grafting and etherification and the onset of this on their ability to form nanocomposites are investigated. Utilization of this newly prepared nanocellulosics as precursors in green synthesis of metal nanoparticles are studied. Also studied are the applications of CNW in textile wet processing and other disciplines. Moreover, optimization of the potential properties of stimuli responsive hydrogels nanocomposites will be addressed in terms of in-vitro drug release.