This book examines water-soluble high-modulus silicate systems’ properties and production techniques, how these systems transform from lower to higher oligomers as well as formation of silica sol and of the sol-gel processes for these oligomers. The authors explore in-depth the different aspects of using these materials as a binder and modifiers for manufacturing of hybrid nanostructured composites through sol-gel processes, as well as features of their structuring. Production of nanostructured silica polymer concrete serves as an example of the application of such silicate systems. The book also covers application of the sols for production of the hybrid nanocomposite monolithic blocks and ultralight fire-resistant materials and techniques for producing of the new nanocomposite acid-resistant materials and linings for corrosive environments. The book is intended for a wide range of scientists, engineers and practitioners, as well as teachers, post-graduate students and senior students of technical colleges studying the technology of nanocomposite silicate-based materials.