This book is a new view on current approaches to biotechnology sciences specially stem cell researches. The authors of this book come from the bioengineering, and physical chemistry communities and each joins the discussion with a unique perspective on biological systems. Consequently, the approaches range from finite element methods commonly used in continuum engineering to biology of the stem cell as a cross-linked nanotechnology science. Nanotechnology is beginning to help advance the equally pioneering field of stem cell research, with devices that can precisely control stem cells and provide nanoscaffolds and magnetic tracking systems. Nanotechnology has been increasingly used to control the cellular environment. In addition, nanoscale topography has been shown to be a powerful regulator of cell behavior such as alignment, migration and differentiation. Therefore there is a need to develop methods for visualizing transplanted stem cells and for quantifying their behavior for a better understanding of their migrational dynamics and differentiation process and of their regeneration potential.