In the nanoscale domain, instruments and manufacturing tools are limited by subtle environmental disturbances. Therefore; they require advanced buildings in order to function properly. Designing these buildings presents a multitude of challenges to architectural and engineering design teams, and reflects a pressing need to develop advanced techniques to enable reliable work at the nanoscale. This research presents the state of emerging guidelines and recommended practices in the design of nanotechnology research centers, and discusses the array of technical and human criteria that emerge in the design research facilities supporting nanoscale science and technology. Divided into three parts; this research starting in the first part by defining nanotechnology and looking at some scientific terms and basic concepts. The second part presents the strategy and design elements required in constructing nanotechnology research buildings. The third part provides and discusses two notable nanotechnology and nanoscience research centers.