Nanotechnology has been regarded as a science and technology-based innovation and is recognized as a promising new growth innovator of the 21st century. This book explores the macro level study of nano-scientific evolution; analyzes the actors’ structures, their roles and linkages; establishes nanotechnology convergence pattern, and identifies demand and push factors for driving technology innovation. This seems to be unique in the study of nanotechnology systems of innovation, and is particularly important for seeking to capture the attributes related to its co-evolutionary nature. It suggests a multi-level framework of nanotechnology convergence and innovation trajectories, shows a model of nanotechnology innovation paths, and designs nanotechnology road mapping. This study confirms the importance of collaborative networks between divergent scientific fields across institutions, and suggests universities and industry be more open to non-traditional collaboration to ease technology transfer. Because such an innovation pattern could be considered a major generator of future economic development opportunities.