National Identity Card (NID) as a legal identity promises a host of goods that have tremendous potential to improve people’s lives. National ID cards are touted to provide greater access to services, benefits, and opportunities; greater protection of human rights and security; a more legitimate and equitable distribution of public resources. This book is an attempt to explain as to how NID has contributed to the political dimension of governance by helping smooth power transition through election, conflict resolution, and consensus-building. It also analyzes how NID has helped to establish social equity and inclusiveness, management of diversity, broad-based legitimacy and protection of vulnerable groups in the context of Bangladesh. Apart from NID’s contribution to ensure improved political governance, this book also seeks to demonstrate how NID is currently contributing to various dimensions of improved economic governance in Bangladesh.