Revision with unchanged content. The rise of the Neo-Schumpeterian economic thought in the economic development theories in the last two decades put the National Innovation Systems (NIS) approach to the agenda of developing countries. However, a proper consideration should be placed on the external and internal factors that affect the any given country's capacity in adapting the proposed innovation policies. Thus, the formal innovation systems approach should be incorporated more directly with the studies on the social dimensions of the transition to new knowledge society without being trapped into technological determinism of the Neo-Schumpeterian approach. The current research critically investigates the changing technological capacity in the telecommunications equipment sector in Turkey by analyzing it in a larger framework of macroeconomic and social conditions in historical perspective and, in light of the findings, it discusses the adaptability of a National Innovation System approach in Turkey. The book is essential for academicians, regional policy makers and other planning professionals who are interested in using innovation systems approach in regional development purposes.