Placental examination is a simple and noninvasive method which plays an important role in predicting and improving the outcome of pregnancy and hence should be a routine component of obstetric and neonatal care. The placenta is an unique gestational organ. It functions as the fount upon which the developing fetus derives its nutritional, metabolic and immunological requirements. It is strategically located at the fetomaternal interface and provides a record of pregnancy in which the cumulative effects of pregnancy-related events and changes reflecting the intrauterine environment can be scrutinized as in a whole organ biopsy. The monograph will assist pathologists and obstetricians in placental examination and diagnosis of placental lesions which will in turn help to improve the outcome of pregnancy in cases of maternal infections and will assist in timely management of mother and fetus.