Egypt is well known by its excellent long staple cottons, which has a worldwide reputation by virtue of the extraordinary quality characteristics of its fibers. It is considered very important for national income, so Egyptian cotton is called "The White Gold". At the present time a revival of interest in chemically free raw materials, minimally handled, environmentally ' friendly' production strategies and transformational processes are contributing to a new demand for naturally colored cotton fiber. Therefor the aim of this research is :- 1. Studying the chemical and physical properties of white and colored Egyptian cotton varieties, and the chemical composition of cotton and factors affecting its behavior wards chemical and mechanical process. 2. Studying the properties of natural coloured cotton and using some natural dyes (henna and senna) which are considered friendly to the environment, to protect our world from pollution with chemicals.