Mycotoxins have always been considered to be a significant health and economic problem throughout the world, especially in the developing countries. Fumonisins, since their discovery in late 80s have been considered to be the mycotoxins of importance next to aflatoxins. This work is a compilation of work carried out by the author which attains significance because this work has been the comprehensive carried out for the first time in India with respect to the significance and management of fumonisins. The work has been widely published in the form of original research articles in various International Journals. This work has shown for the first time human and animal health significance of these mycotoxins in addition to first report on natural occurrence of fumonisins in Sorghum. Some of the strategies for management of fumonisins are of practical significance to the developing countries.