This book is a result of the study that was conducted on natural resource conflicts, resolution and management mechanisms between refugees and host communities in Nakivale refugee settlement in Isingiro district, South Western Uganda. The study specifically establishes the history of natural resource conflict, analyzes the current natural resource conflict, examines the current resolution and management mechanisms and evaluates the success of the conflict resolution and management mechanisms. The findings reveal that the conflicts date as far back as the 1960s. They are caused by struggle for land and water sources, increase in the number of refugees and the continuous in flow of nationals. A number of resolution and management mechanisms have been adopted including repatriation of refugees, provision of basic needs, sensitization of the refugees and the host community, use of local council courts and land demarcations. These mechanisms have relatively led to a reduction of tensions, relative peace and security, reduced physical and psychological torture and fairly harmonious relationship between refugees and host communities.