Ethiopia is endowed with abundant natural resources and biodiversity. Yet the sustainability of these resources is under threat. The initial alarming projections of environmental scarcity, inadequate supplies of minerals to sustain industrialization and agricultural production are too limited to meet the needs of a growing population.Environmental services are inadequate to disperse increasing quantities of waste and have given way over time to a broader view of growing insecurity. Resource scarcity poses new challenges, it also encourages the development of technologies that allow for the discovery of new reserves and provide unexpected tools and capacities to cope with these challenges. The main development agenda of Ethiopian government is poverty eradication. There is a wide national consensus on the poverty agenda of erradicating poverty and the policies and strategies pursued to address such a development priority.This book desscribes in detail the resources what we have, area of scarcity and the government attentions to cope with the resource scarcity.