Despite the floury of writings and conferences during the past ten years regarding NEPAD and MDGs – the two latest initiatives to take the continent out of its poverty trap, knowledge about these two initiatives, what they actually constitutes and represent for Africa remains very sparse. The amount of public relations that had gone into the facts, that NEPAD is Africa owned does not seem to tally with what is happening on the ground: NEPAD remaining rather state centric and top down. NEPAD and MDGs may well have been designed by some of the leaders and elites groups in the continent, but if the peoples from the various walks of life are not familiar with the different aspects of the proposal contained within NEPAD and MDGs, it is very difficult to talk about African ownership. The title of this book has been somewhat inspired by that of the World Bank document: Can Africa acclaims the 21st century’. The reason for this is that this book is an attempt to challenge conventional view of development and to interrogate plans and frameworks such NEPAD and MDGs, which are increasingly being brandishes as the solution to the problems of the continent.