The present work has the scope to present the fundamentals of the new criminal Laws and criminal executionary law in Romania, and the relation with other juridical institutions and branches of law existing in Romania. Prerequisites for the understanding of the present work are: a minimum knowledge of law, an understanding of criminal law, punishments, the system of law of the EU and the ECHR, democracy, rule of law, supremacy of constitution and so on. The legislation on criminal accountability has constantly grown due to increase in crime. In this context the laws regarding executionary law have evolved also, and in addition we have an increased interest on behalf of the state to intensify the process of reeducation and social integration of those punished for criminal acts. Thus Romania has undergone a process of transforming it's penal laws starting February 2014 with the entering into force of the New Criminal Code and New Criminal Procedures Code and other related laws. We, the authors, hope you will find in this book a starting point in the process of knowing the Romanian criminal law system.