The renovation program known as Doi moi in Vietnam provided an incentive for the uptake of IT in government and private organisations. This study examines organisational culture at a national and local level and the success factors for IT implementation. The majority of the organisations surveyed were characterised as ‘Elephant’ with elements of order, uniformity, rules, regulations and emphasis on stability. They were mostly state-owned located in North Vietnam and met with less success compared to ''Tiger’ organisations which were mainly private and foreign-owned. These were generally located in the South and stressed operational efficiency, competitive advantage and market superiority. ‘Rabbit’ characteristics, such as flexibility, creativity and innovation did not surface often in the study of Vietnamese organisations. ‘Tiger’ culture followed by ‘Rabbit’ were significantly associated with higher levels of IT success. ''Production-oriented'' organisations indicated higher levels of IT investment payoff than ‘People-oriented’ ones. Characteristically, organisations with ‘entrepreneurial’ culture were found to have high levels of IT implementation success.